At the moment, when choosing the method for transferring the energy of high-altitude winds to the ground, the main rate is made on the periodic mechanical pulling of the cable from the winch with a period of several minutes. This method has a number of advantages: Absence of energy conversion devices at the top; A large power transfer rate per kilogram of mass of the transmitter. If you look carefully at similar projects, in particular from the Belgian University TU Delft, the ceiling of the kite flying is about 500 meters with the claimed several kilometers. The problem lies in the mass of the cable and the method of control. Another problem is the unsteady position and, as a consequence, the variable wind and aerodynamic stability. The device is not self-stabilizing and is equipped with a sophisticated control system. Already, stationary wind generators reach blades to heights of 500 m and AWE with a mechanical winch does not become a breakthrough technology, although it must be acknowledged that this technology is now ahead of all AWE projects. An alternative route, which has not received much development to date, is a stationary catcher scheme, considered within the framework of this project. Determine the key characteristic of any AWE system – the mass density of energy flow per kilogram of the weight of the installation: em = P/m, where P – power (W); m – mass of the installation (kg). It is important to bear in mind that the mass of the installation includes not only the mass of the transmitter, but the mass of the catcher. So, in the presence of an electric generator, the weight of a catcher can reach hundreds of kilograms to generate energy on the order of megawatt. With the mechanical pulling of the cable from the winch, the generator is not in the catcher point, so the mass of this term is zero. Let us consider separately the mass density of the energy flow from the calculation for the mass of the transmitter. If we discard the exotic options for energy transfer (laser, high voltage electricity through the waveguide), there are two options: transfer by containers with lithium-ion batteries, as well as electrolysis of water with hydrogen production. In this issue AWE strongly correlates with road transport on energy-saving technologies. There is also a dilemma: hydrogen or lithium. There is such a thing as the Hindenburg syndrome – the fear of hydrogen technology after the explosion of Zeppelin, filled with hydrogen. Fear added academician Sakharov, who invented a hydrogen bomb. Nobody wants to ride a car, stuffed with hundreds of kilograms of explosives. Another problem is the poor compressibility of hydrogen. All this stops the rapid development of hydrogen technologies and requires the development of safe fuel cells that conserve hydrogen in the intermediate state. But why is it so good? This is clearly well known in Toyota, which are leaders in the production of hydrogen cars. Behind them aspire and other Japanese. On this way, I decided to go to Iceland, who set out to change the fleet to hydrogen. Hydrogen is produced by electrolysis of water and, in fact, is a free battery in terms of investment. In this matter, he unquestionably wins the lithium-ion batteries. The number of recharge lithium-ion batteries 600 times. Those. The most expensive element of an electric vehicle will need to be changed every 2 years with active use. The concentration of accumulated energy on the mass of the accumulating substance is 260 times greater than lithium! Here is the price paid for the syndrome of Hindenburg. The device AWE is autonomous, its operation is not connected with the presence of people, therefore this syndrome should be excluded. There are two ways of water electrolysis: the production of Bormann gas (a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen) and the production of pure hydrogen. The explosive gas is very explosive, but the installation for its production is much more efficient and has a smaller size. On the other hand, the rattling gas is quite applicable in everyday life, for example, in cutting machines. Brown’s gas may well be suitable for transporting energy to the ground in an AWE system. Moreover, this process can be organized both in capsules (inflatable balloons) and in tubes. And in both cases it will help to solve the weight problem, since the gas is lighter than air. There are a large number of projects to create an electrolyzer for the production of both Brown gas and pure hydrogen. Of course, they all do not have the task of obtaining a minimum mass. This is the task of AWE project developers!
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